- From Startup to Decline - Charting Your Path Along the S-Curve
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August 21, 2023

As a Certified Scaling Up coach, clients often ask me the best way to manage growth for their companies. One of the models I reference is Verne Harnish's interpretation of the S-Curve, based on the Scaling Up methodology. The S-Curve illustrates the typical stages of growth that most successful companies experience over time. 

Understanding where you sit on the S-Curve is critical for business leaders. It allows you to prepare for the challenges ahead and invest appropriately for future growth. For example, companies at the Startup stage need to focus on experimentation and finding product-market fit. At the more advanced Maturity stage, the priorities shift to maximizing efficiencies and maintaining market share through incremental innovation.

The four stages of the S-Curve are Startup, Growth, Maturity, and Decline. Let's break down the characteristics of each stage and look at real-world examples of companies going through each phase. With the proper foresight and planning, leaders can help their organizations smoothly scale up the S-Curve to achieve lasting success. However, companies must also keep innovating, or they risk eventual decline.

The Startup Stage

The Startup stage is the beginning period for a new company just getting off the ground. At this early point, there is lots of experimentation happening as the founders work to find product/market fit. The priority is trying out different ideas and business models to determine what resonates with customers. They might have innovated an offering that garnered attention and immediate customers, but now it needs to work as a business. 

Startups at this stage are figuring out the basics, like product features, target demographics, branding, and positioning. There is little formal structure, and the company is likely iterating quickly based on customer feedback. Financing typically comes from the founders, their families, or external investors who believe in the idea's potential.

Look at Airbnb circa 2008. Co-founders Brian Chesky and Joe Gebbia were struggling to pay their rent and had the idea to create an air mattress rental service for conferences. They initially experimented with selling novelty breakfast cereals before realizing the bigger opportunity around home rentals. After lots of trial and error, Airbnb ultimately found its core product and was able to begin scaling up.

The Growth Stage

The Growth stage is when a company starts rapidly picking up steam. Product-market fit has been validated, and the focus is on scaling up. Customer acquisition accelerates as the company expands into new markets. Revenues, employees, and customer bases all grow quickly in the Growth phase.

At this stage, processes start becoming more formalized. Whereas startups can sometimes run more ad hoc, growth requires structure. Management teams expand, and planning gets more strategic. Marketing and sales ramp up to support increasing demand. Financing needs also rise as companies invest to support quick scaling.

Between 2006 and 2008, Facebook exemplified this stage. After initially being limited to college students, Facebook opened up to everyone in 2006. User growth exploded, and Facebook expanded globally and became a mainstream phenomenon. Mark Zuckerberg brought in Sheryl Sandberg as COO to manage hypergrowth and established more structure. This propelled Facebook from a startup to a global technology giant.


This is when a company transitions from rapid growth to focusing on stability and maximizing profits. Growth begins decelerating, and the business looks to increase efficiencies. At this point, the company has established itself in the market, so efforts shift to defending market share versus expansion.

Mature companies have a well-defined structure and conservative culture. Innovation takes a back seat to incremental improvements to existing products and services. Companies in the Maturity stage seek to protect the status quo versus taking risks.

A classic example of a mature company is Coca-Cola. Coke is one of the most established brands in the world. While the company still seeks to grow, its focus is on steady, predictable expansion versus reinventing itself. Coke pours resources into brand protection and margin improvement efforts. However, critics argue it has become too risk-averse in protecting its core soda business.


A well-known example is Kodak. For decades, Kodak dominated the film photography industry. But the company was extremely slow to embrace digital cameras out of fear of cannibalizing its core film sales. Despite inventing the first digital camera, Kodak stumbled severely during the digital revolution. The company filed for bankruptcy in 2012 as consumers shifted to digital photography.

The Decline stage is when a company begins to experience falling sales, losing customers to competitors, and financial struggles. This stage may happen gradually over the years or abruptly in the face of disruption. But the hallmarks are high costs, cash flow problems, and lack of profitability.

Companies in decline often resist change and double down on their struggling core business. They cut costs, close locations, and lay off workers to stay afloat. Turnaround efforts are hampered by ingrained bureaucracy and cultural inertia. Without major changes, these businesses continue spiraling downward.

The S-Curve provides a powerful model for understanding the stages of growth that successful companies experience over time. By tracking your position on the S-Curve, you can anticipate upcoming challenges and make proactive investments to continue propelling growth. Startups should focus on experimentation, companies in high growth mode need to scale swiftly under more formalized systems, and mature organizations require efficiency gains and defending market share.

However, no company can rest on its laurels forever. Today's hypercompetitive environment demands constant innovation and reinvention. Companies that fail to disrupt themselves and create new S-Curves will eventually creep into decline. Leaders must keep asking themselves - are we continuing to reimagine our business before external forces force us to? 

Finding the courage to creatively destroy and rebuild your own company is the only sustainable path forward.

author avatar
George Morris
I use my 20+ years of entrepreneurial experience and training to coach businesses on scaling up rapidly using Verne Harnish's Scaling Up framework. By doing so, my clients are more efficient and profitable, giving them the ability to make bigger impacts in the world. I deeply believe entrepreneurs are the best equipped to be the vehicle for meaningful change, and in the decade ahead, we'll see a substantial shift in how business is done. We'll move to a model where company purpose, impact, curiosity, and team health will be differentiators in overall business success. As Simon Sinek has pointed out, the finite games are the legacy of the past; we're moving to an infinite game.